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Travma İle İlişkili Bozukluklar

Trauma-Associated Disorders

Trauma, in its most general definition, is a state of discomfort resulting from an unusual experience that has a lasting effect on the individual’s mental state and personality. It is possible to examine traumas in 2 types as short-term and permanent traumas. While short-term traumas occur as a result of sudden and non-continuous events such as earthquakes, fires, and traffic accidents, continuous traumas include continuous situations such as domestic violence, neglect, abuse. The way of perceiving and making sense of the events or the catastrophic experiences that can create a traumatic effect differs for each individual. According to one person, the situation/event may be experienced by someone else as a traumatic situation, while it may reveal emotions that can be overcome. This situation is shaped by many factors such as the person’s developmental processes, genetic structure, and social environment.

Acute Stress Disorder (Asb)

Acute stress disorder is a condition in which people develop symptoms soon after exposure to a traumatic experience. According to the diagnostic criteria, it should last more than 3 days after the stressful event and should not exceed 1 month after the event. If symptoms persist for more than 1 month, it is not called acute stress disorder. Many of the people who continue to have problems afterward are diagnosed with post-traumatic stress disorder. Events such as serious injuries, sexual or physical abuse, death of a loved one are experiences that can cause acute stress disorder. But not every mourning process turns into trauma.

Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)

Symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder do not usually appear immediately after the trauma. After some time has passed since the traumatic event, people relive the event (flashback) and avoid thinking about the event. They may develop a sense of guilt by holding themselves accountable for what happened. Physiological arousal such as sweating, trembling, focusing difficulties, waking up from sleep and being alert all the time are common symptoms. Prolonged duration of the traumatic event, being a rare condition, and extreme severity increase the likelihood of individuals developing PTSD. At the same time, traumatic situations experienced by people in close circles such as children, spouses, relatives are also one of the reasons that increase the probability of developing PTSD.

Events that may be traumatic for adults may not be for children. In particular, the criteria for trauma before the age of 6 may differ markedly. Experiencing the event directly, especially witnessing or learning what happened to primary caregivers (mother, father, etc.) are situations that may lead to the development of PTSD in children. There is no re-experiencing of the traumatic event, that is, flashbacks, which exist in adults in the 0-6 age period. Because in this period, abstract thinking skills are not fully developed yet. Children may not remember the event, but they avoid evocative objects, people, and situations. When examining post-traumatic stress disorder in children, exposure to traumatic events through the media is excluded. Since the self-centered mindset is dominant at the age of 6 and before, the child only thinks about himself and his relatives, and the events in the media do not turn into trauma. Among the symptoms that a traumatized child may show are retroactive behaviors we call regression. If an 8-year-old child suddenly begins to show the developmental characteristics of younger years, trauma should be suspected. Negative memories may not appear to be distressing to the child, but may arise with re-enactment during play. Children may have difficulty in establishing relationships between events. In cases where they have not experienced the memory that caused the trauma before, they cannot easily express the event because it is difficult for them to perceive the event. For this reason, it is recommended that children who are exposed to situations that can be considered trauma should seek expert support immediately.

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