Ruminasyon Nedir

What is Rumination?

Rumination refers to the process of constantly thinking about negative emotions and thoughts related to a stressful or bad event. The term “rumination” is derived from the Latin word “rumen,” which signifies the large first compartment of the stomach in ruminant animals. Therefore, rumination can be described as a mental process akin to chewing cud or repeatedly going over thoughts.

Ruminating involves frequently thinking about past negative events, repeating conversations, and can also extend to obsessively thinking about future events and feeling excessive worry. Read more

Ergenlik Nedir? Nasıl İlişki Kurulmalıdır?

What is Adolescence? How Should Relationships Be Established?

Adolescence (puberty) is the transitional period from childhood to adulthood, marked by numerous physical, emotional, and cognitive changes. This phase, which can evoke anxiety in many young individuals and families, is characterized by noticeable differences and a shift in familial and peer relationships. As individuals try to adapt to physical and emotional changes, adolescence becomes a journey of self-discovery. This period, where interests and expectations take shape, emphasizes self-awareness, recognizing needs, adapting to change, managing social relationships, and achieving autonomy. Read more

Hiperaktivite Nedir? Belirtileri ve Tedavi Yolları

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment What is ADHD?

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by symptoms such as inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity, which have negative effects on an individual’s academic, social, and professional life.

Symptoms of ADHD: ADHD is categorized into three types: predominantly inattentive type, predominantly hyperactive-impulsive type, and combined type. Read more

Panik Alışveriş Nedir?

What Is Panic Buying?

Panic buying, defined as panic purchasing behavior, is the act of making excessive purchases during periods of uncertainty, such as natural disasters, economic crises, pandemics, and wars. It is characterized by individuals engaging in buying behavior out of fear, anxiety, and panic, driven by the sense that something bad is going to happen. Panic buying involves socially undesirable herd behavior, where daily necessities are excessively bought, leading to depleted shelves. This behavior is a response of consumers to periods of uncertainty triggered by events such as natural disasters, economic crises, pandemics, and wars. Read more


The Impact of Stress on Our Lives Understanding Stress

Stress is a negative condition that has the potential to affect our lives in various unexpected ways, influencing our emotions, thoughts, and behaviors. Coping with or attempting to change the stressful situation leads to the occurrence of physiological, cognitive, and behavioral responses. Stressful situations typically trigger negative emotions such as fear and anxiety in individuals. The sources of stress can arise from different situations, including physical stressors such as medical illnesses or injuries, environmental conditions stemming from natural disasters and lifestyle changes, interpersonal/social stressors arising from conflicts or separation among family members, and psychological factors that significantly impact one’s life and functionality. Read more

Cinsellik Nedir? Güvenli Cinsellik Kavramı Neleri İçerir?

What Is Sexuality? What Does the Concept of Safe Sex Include?

Sexuality is a complex phenomenon with many dimensions, including biological, psychological, cultural, and social aspects. Human sexual behavior is a product of both biological and experiential influences. In maintaining a healthy sexual life, all three of these elements—biological, psychological, and sociocultural—play crucial roles.

In contemporary understandings of sexuality, it is accepted that sexuality is inherent to all humans and is a natural and healthy part of life. People can express and experience their sexuality in various ways, and in pluralistic societies, respect should be given to differences in values and beliefs related to sexuality. Sexual life should be based on mutual trust, commitment, honesty, and respect; it should be free from coercion and exploitation. Sexual life requires self-regulation and responsibility. An individual must take responsibility for the decisions related to their sexual life. Engaging in sexual behaviors prematurely carries risks, so it is essential for young people to be informed by healthcare organizations. Read more

Karantina Günlerinde Psikolojik Sağlamlık

 Psychological Resilience During Quarantine Days

In these days when we are grappling with Covid-19, there is a common experience shared by all societies: “being in quarantine” and as a result, “physical isolation.” According to research, quarantine has negative effects on our psychology. Intense feelings such as anxiety, anger, and unreal thoughts, or unexpected thoughts, can be examples of these effects. First and foremost, it is beneficial to remember that these reactions are normal in such extraordinary situations. Then, recognizing stress factors and our supportive resources in a balanced way will help us manage this process. Read more

Panik Atak Nedir? Belirtileri ve Tedavi Yolları

Panic Attack: Symptoms and Treatment Methods What is a Panic Attack? Symptoms and Treatment Approaches

A panic attack is a sudden occurrence characterized by intense fear or anxiety accompanied by various physical symptoms, classified within anxiety disorders. The severity of physical symptoms peaks within a few minutes and can last for 10-20 minutes. Panic attacks can occur not only in anxiety disorders but also in depression, social phobia, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), mental disorders related to substance use, or certain conditions affecting the heart or respiratory system. During a panic attack, individuals often experience a strong fear of “dying, going crazy, or losing control.” Read more

Depresyon Nedir? Belirtileri ve Tedavi Yolları

Depression: Symptoms and Treatment Methods What is Depression? Symptoms and Treatment Approaches

Depression is a common and serious medical condition that adversely affects individuals’ emotions, thoughts, and behaviors. Due to its frequent occurrence, it is also commonly labeled among people. When people feel unhappy, they may think they are depressed, but not every instance of sadness indicates depression.

Depression manifests as a state of sadness, a lack of interest in previously enjoyable activities, and a general unwillingness. In addition to emotional and physical problems, it negatively affects individuals’ functionality in daily life. However, the extent of the impact on functionality varies with the severity of depression: In some cases, individuals can carry out their daily tasks despite feeling sad and joyless, while in other cases, individuals may become unable to get out of bed, go to work, and struggle to maintain their routine. Read more

Anksiyete Nedir? Belirtileri ve Tedavi Yolları

Anxiety: Symptoms and Treatment Methods What is Anxiety? Is Worrying Normal?

Anxiety is one of the many emotions we experience, such as happiness, anger, sadness, surprise, disgust, and fear. Feeling anxious is a normal and healthy response. However, when experienced excessively and reaches a disturbing level for an individual, it starts to negatively impact mental health. It manifests itself as an excessive level of fear, worry, tension, and restlessness.

While fear is an emotional response to an actual danger, anxiety is the emotion experienced in anticipation of a possible threat or danger in the future. Although these two emotions may overlap at times, they differentiate at certain points: Fear triggers automatic arousal during an actual threat, leading to the “fight or flight” response, an immediate reaction to confront or escape the danger. Read more

Toksik Pozitiflikten Zorlu Duygular ile Baş Etme

Coping with Difficult Emotions and Toxic Positivity “Can I cope, or do I have to be happy?”

Skills for Coping with Difficult Emotions from Toxic Positivity

Emotions are often classified as positive and negative. Positive emotions describe more fluid and enjoyable feelings, while negative emotions encompass more challenging and uncomfortable ones. This classification can sometimes lead to tendencies such as suppressing, ignoring, and denying emotions perceived as negative. However, humans are capable of experiencing both fluid and challenging emotions, such as happiness, joy, excitement, as well as more challenging and tight emotions like anger, sadness, and anxiety. Being able to experience both types of emotions is vital for individuals, and each emotion serves a function. All emotional experiences can indicate met and unmet needs and situations in one’s life. For example, a child who feels upset and hurt because of derogatory nicknames can learn that aggressive and violent behaviors, such as bullying, are unacceptable by referencing the challenging emotion he experienced. To allow the child to reference his emotions, he should be able to notice how other people’s behaviors affect him, name the emotion he feels, and express it. The ability to do this depends on accepting that both fluid and enjoyable emotions and challenging and tight emotions are human, vital, and functional. Read more

Gündem - Madalyon Psikiyatri Merkezi

Earthquake and Psychological First Aid

What People Experience After a Major Earthquake?

Natural disasters are a part of the world we live in. While we can accept this scientifically and physically, dealing with the effects is not so easy. An earthquake can cause not only the collapse of buildings but also disrupt other aspects of our lives. At a time when what we all need the most is safety and security, and building it throughout our lives is already challenging, adapting to the sudden change and shocking losses caused by an earthquake is quite difficult. At this stage, the impact of the earthquake begins with shock. This is one of the defense mechanisms the body employs against sudden changes. After the shock effect, high levels of anxiety and fear emerge. There may be sensitivities such as startle reactions, nightmares, and repeatedly reliving the moment even with the slightest stimulus. Shame, a sense of insecurity, and disappointment may accompany these feelings. Read more

İmago Terapi Nedir

 What is Imago Therapy?

Imago Relationship Therapy was developed by Harville Hendrix and his wife Helen LaKelly. According to Hendrix, who tried to find a solution to the problems in male-female relationships, individuals are more inclined to choose partners with personality traits similar to those of their parents, which leads to problems in relationships. Harville Hendrix was influenced by the writings on marriage by Sigmund Freud, Carl Jung, and Eric Berne in the development of therapy. At the same time, Imago Relationship Therapy is based on many theories and approaches. Read more

Çekingen Kişilik Bozukluğu

What is Avoidant Personality Disorder?

Avoidant Personality Disorder is a personality disorder. Personality disorders express the problems of individuals in their relationships with their surroundings and the troubles in the inner world of the individual due to personality traits. In personality disorders, personality traits are seen as rigid and unchangeable. Read more

Tırnak Yeme Hastalığı Nedir

What Is Nail Biting Disorder?

Nail-biting disorder, medically known as onychophagia, is a condition that describes the behaviors of nail biting, nail picking, inserting one or more fingers into the mouth, and biting nails. Nail-biting is considered a repetitive behavior disorder and is classified as “Other Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders” in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). Read more

Psikolojik Yaşlanma Diye Bir Şey Var mı

 Is There Such a Thing as Psychological Aging?

The concept of aging, which refers to the gradual loss of functionality in various systems of the body, has different dimensions (chronological, biological, physiological, psychological, socio-cultural, economic, and social). The psychological dimension of aging is one of these dimensions and is expressed by the concept of psychological aging. Psychological aging refers to the decline in mental functions and changes in behavioral adaptation abilities that occur in individuals during the elderly period. The transition to the retirement period, the emergence of various diseases, and physical losses in old age lead to various problems. Along with these problems, a decrease in cognitive skills and changes in mental characteristics are observed in elderly individuals. Read more

Psikolojik Dayanıklılık

What is Psychological Resilience?

The English term “Resilience” corresponds to concepts such as psychological resilience, psychological robustness, unwaveringness, and the ability to recover in Turkish. Psychological resilience, an important topic in positive psychology, which conducts many studies on happiness, well-being, and subjective well-being, generally involves: Read more

Paranoid Kişilik Bozukluğu Nedir

Paranoid Personality Disorder: Understanding and Characteristics

Paranoid Personality Disorder (PPD) is a personality disorder that typically emerges during young adulthood and is characterized by a pervasive pattern of interpreting others’ actions as deliberately threatening or demeaning. Individuals with PPD often harbor unfounded suspicions about the motives of others, display a high level of mistrust, and adopt a consistently suspicious approach. Read more

Ölüm Korkusu Nedir

Understanding Fear of Death, and How to Overcome It

The fear of death is a universal fear experienced by all individuals, stemming from the universal concept of mortality. This fear is often associated with the uncertainty about what lies beyond death. Individuals who have a desire for immortality may sometimes experience discomfort due to the thought that life will eventually come to an end. When the fear of death exists within manageable levels, it plays a crucial role in individuals’ lives by helping them maintain a sense of safety within certain boundaries. This fear enables individuals to protect themselves from various dangers and continue living their lives by acknowledging the presence of death. However, when the fear or anxiety intensifies and becomes uncontrollable, individuals may experience profound distress, making it challenging to enjoy life. Read more

Okul Korkusu (Fobisi) Nedir

Understanding School Phobia (Phobia)

School phobia is defined as the reluctance of school-age children to attend school, refusing to go, and experiencing emotional difficulties related to going to school. School phobia is commonly observed in children starting preschool or entering primary school. Read more

Melankolik Depresyon Nedir

Melancholic Depression: Understanding the Depths of Despair

Depression is defined as a “mood disorder,” characterized by individuals feeling emotionally low. Depression is classified into different subtypes, and one of these is melancholic depression. Melancholic depression is a type of major depression that tends to be more severe and debilitating compared to other forms. In melancholic depression, not only is there a pervasive low mood and despondency, but there is also a significant emphasis on physical and cognitive slowing. Read more

Derealizasyon Nedir

Derealization: Understanding the Dissociative Experience

Derealization is classified within dissociative disorders, a category associated with psychopathology characterized by suicidal attempts, self-harming behaviors, difficulties in concentration, mood fluctuations, anger outbursts, and feelings of identity uncertainty resulting from childhood trauma.

Defined as a dissociative disorder, derealization describes the individual’s detachment from external situations. Individuals may feel as if they are living in a dream, experiencing disconnected perceptions of time, space, colors, and surrounding objects. Derealization is also indicative of a state of emotional detachment.

Derealization and Depersonalization

Derealization and depersonalization are often observed concurrently in dissociative disorders. Depersonalization involves experiences such as observing oneself from an external perspective, detachment from one’s emotions and thoughts, and loss of control over physical movements. In derealization, individuals experience a sense of detachment from external realities.

Causes of Derealization

The primary factor contributing to derealization is childhood trauma, neglect, and abuse. Trauma experienced during childhood induces alterations in the limbic structure of the brain, leading to discrepancies that may contribute to the development of derealization.

Various triggers can precipitate derealization:

Medical conditions

Psychological disorders

Substance use


These factors can induce a sense of detachment from reality, creating an experience akin to living in a dream.

Symptoms of Derealization

Individuals experiencing derealization are aware that the surrounding elements are real, but they do not feel connected to the reality around them. Commonly, the events and objects in the environment evoke a feeling of belonging to another world, creating a sensation reminiscent of living in a dream. Individuals feel a sense of separation from their surroundings, and perceptions of time, colors, and sounds may seem different from reality.

Treatment of Derealization

The primary method of treating derealization involves psychotherapy, with cognitive-behavioral approaches or techniques like Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) commonly employed. While pharmacological methods may be used to alleviate accompanying diagnoses, there is no specific medication for derealization treatment.

Psychotherapy aims to identify the factors contributing to derealization, helping individuals recognize their emotions and bodily sensations. Through therapy sessions, negative thoughts and beliefs contributing to derealization are addressed, with a focus on replacing them with positive thoughts and beliefs. Therapeutic interventions aim to reduce the frequency of derealization symptoms and enhance the functional aspects of individuals’ daily lives.



Mawad, Heidi. “What is Derealization?”. March 10, 2021. Accessed on January 31, 2023, from Derealization: Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment.

Mutlu, E. (2022). “Investigating the Effectiveness of EMDR Therapy in Young Adults Experiencing Depersonalization and Derealization: A Case Study.” International Academic Social Resources Journal, 7(37), 595- 601.


Pika Sendromu Nedir

What is Pica Syndrome?

Pica syndrome is a psychiatric disorder classified under the umbrella of eating disorders, encompassing various conditions involving disruptions in eating behaviors.

Pica syndrome involves the regular and persistent consumption, for a minimum of one month, of non-nutritive and non-food substances without a sense of disgust. Common substances ingested in pica syndrome include soap, soil, clay, metal, ice, sand, plastic, cloth, lime, paper, hair, matchstick tips, chalk, paint, and coins.

Symptoms of Pica Syndrome:

Consuming non-nutritive substances for an extended period poses threats to intestinal, gastric, and dental health. Some non-food items may also pose poisoning risks, creating life-threatening situations for individuals.

In pica syndrome:

The consumption of non-nutritive substances does not align with the individual’s developmental level. (For example, the act of infants putting various objects in their mouths during the crawling phase is not considered pica syndrome.)

Eating behaviors deviate from socially or culturally accepted norms. (Some cultures may have practices involving the consumption of specific non-food items.)

The eating behavior is severe enough to warrant additional evaluation, even if it arises from another psychiatric condition.

General Features of Pica Syndrome:

Pica syndrome takes its name from the Latin word “pica,” meaning magpie, a bird known for consuming a variety of items, including non-food items. Although pica syndrome typically emerges during childhood, it can affect individuals of all age groups.

Causes of Pica Syndrome:

Various factors, including socio-economic, physiological, psychological, and behavioral elements, contribute to the development of pica syndrome.

Socio-economic factors play a role, particularly in developing societies with insufficient nutrition. Deficiencies in vital vitamins and minerals, such as zinc and iron, are known to play a crucial role in the development of pica syndrome.

Dietary programs promoting restrictive eating may lead to vitamin deficiencies and contribute to the development of pica syndrome.

Pregnant and breastfeeding women with nutritional deficiencies may exhibit pica syndrome.

Kidney diseases have been linked to the onset of pica syndrome.

Psychological factors also play a significant role in the development of pica syndrome.

Lack of communication within the family, parental neglect, and sensory deprivation contribute to eating disorders in children, including pica syndrome.

Pica syndrome can develop as a coping mechanism for stress and anxiety.

Some psychiatric illnesses may lead to the emergence of pica syndrome.

Treatment of Pica Syndrome:

The treatment of pica syndrome involves the collaboration of psychiatrists, psychotherapists, and dietitians. The management of treatment is determined based on the physiological and psychological condition of the patient and the underlying cause of the syndrome.

In cases where pica syndrome results from mineral and vitamin deficiencies:

Identification of the necessary vitamins and minerals is crucial.

Dietary patterns are adjusted, and missing nutrients are incorporated into the diet.

For cases where psychological factors contribute to pica syndrome:

Psychotherapy and behavioral therapy techniques are employed to address and treat eating behavior disorders.



Ertekin, Y., Korkut, Y., Sönmez, C., & Ertekin, H. (2012). A Different Case of Pica Disorder. Ankara Medical Journal, 12(3), 158-159.

Gümüş, Ç., Alver, E., & Körpe, H. (2020). A Social Responsibility Example: Magazine Ad Designs for Promoting Pica Syndrome.

Ünal, R. N., & Samur, F. G. (2012). The Effects of Pica Behavior on Human Health. Nutrition and Diet Journal, 40(2), 155-162.


Uyku Apnesi (Sendromu) Nedir

What is Sleep Apnea (Syndrome)?

Derived from the Greek word “apnea,” meaning inability to breathe or cessation of breathing, sleep apnea refers to the cessation and resumption of breathing during sleep. It is classified under sleep-related breathing disorders.

Types of Sleep Apnea:

Central Sleep Apnea Syndrome:

Central sleep apnea occurs when the brain fails to send proper signals to the muscles responsible for controlling breathing. In this type, respiratory movements and airflow stop for at least 10 seconds.

Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSAS):

Obstructive sleep apnea occurs due to blockages in the upper airways during sleep, leading to partial or complete cessation of airflow. Although airflow may completely stop, respiratory effort continues.

Complex Sleep Apnea Syndrome:

Complex sleep apnea is defined as a combination of the other two types. In this type, respiratory efforts persist, but short central respiratory arrests occur.

Symptoms of Sleep Apnea:

As a result of breathing cessation, oxygen levels in the blood decrease, prompting the brain to reduce sleep depth and attempt to restart breathing. While individuals may not recall this process, it disrupts sleep quality, leading to morning fatigue. The three main symptoms of sleep apnea are:

Persistent and Long-Term Snoring:

Snoring is a common and persistent symptom of sleep apnea.

Excessive Daytime Sleepiness and Unrefreshing Sleep:

Individuals may experience extreme sleepiness during the day and wake up feeling unrefreshed.

Observation of Breathing Pauses by Others:

Family members or bed partners may notice pauses in the individual’s breathing during sleep.

Other symptoms of sleep apnea include waking up with a choking sensation or palpitations, frequent nighttime urination, morning headaches, weakness, depression, and irritability.

Negative Effects of Sleep Apnea:

Sleep apnea significantly affects the cardiovascular, nervous, and hormonal systems. Decreased oxygen levels during apnea episodes lead to increased blood pressure and heart rate, contributing to the development of serious conditions such as heart attacks, hypertension, strokes, and elevated insulin levels.

Disturbances in sleep quality due to sleep apnea result in various systemic impairments, causing issues such as headaches, depression, forgetfulness, difficulty making decisions, and decreased libido.

Excessive daytime sleepiness due to sleep disorders plays a crucial role in traffic and workplace accidents.

Diagnosis of Sleep Apnea:

The diagnosis of sleep apnea is made through examinations and assessments by Ear, Nose, and Throat (ENT) specialists. The results of a sleep study called polysomnography, conducted overnight in a sleep laboratory, are crucial for evaluation.

Polysomnography Device (PSG):

This device, widely used in sleep apnea treatment, involves attaching various electrodes around the patient’s head, nose, chest, and abdomen. It records various parameters during sleep, including respiratory movements through the nose and mouth, respiratory rhythm, oxygen levels, heart rate and rhythm, chest and abdominal movements, and brain wave characteristics.

Treatment of Sleep Apnea:

Eliminating factors that trigger apnea formation is crucial in sleep apnea treatment. This may include:

Losing weight to prevent airway obstruction

Paying attention to sleeping positions to avoid triggering apnea while sleeping on the back

Avoiding the use of alcohol and sedative medications before sleep

Treating diseases that contribute to the development of sleep apnea

Positive Airway Pressure (PAP) Therapy:

One effective treatment for sleep apnea is the use of a PAP device to open narrowed airways. PAP therapy involves using a mask and hose, with various types of masks (nasal or oral) available.

Oral Appliance Therapy:

This treatment involves placing various devices inside the mouth, such as tongue-retaining devices or mandibular advancement devices. The aim is to alter positions that contribute to breathing cessation.


Sümbül, H. (2017). Development of a diagnostic method for sleep apnea and COPD diseases. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation) Karabük University Institute of Science and Technology Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Karabük.

Turkish Thoracic Society – Sleep Apnea Patient Brochure (PDF)


Narkolepsi Nedir

What is Narcolepsy?

Narcolepsy is a neurological sleep disorder characterized by an increase in daytime sleepiness, sudden attacks of sleep or drowsiness, and disrupted nighttime sleep. The term “narcolepsy” is derived from the Greek words “narke” (sleep, numbness, lethargy) and “lepsis” (attack, seizure). While the comprehensive definition of narcolepsy was first provided by Jean Baptiste Edouard Gélineau in 1880, there are reports dating back to 1672 mentioning individuals who could perform their daily activities but would suddenly fall asleep while eating, laughing, or walking.

Causes of Narcolepsy: Although the exact cause of narcolepsy is not fully understood, it is believed to be related to a deficiency in a chemical in the brain called orexin or hypocretin. Sleep, a vital life need, is regulated by this chemical.

In addition to chemical imbalances, genetic disorders, hormonal changes, psychological traumas, sudden changes in sleep patterns, and various infections are mentioned as potential triggers for narcolepsy. The onset of narcolepsy in individuals typically occurs during adolescence and young adulthood.

Symptoms of Narcolepsy:

  1. Increased Daytime Sleepiness/Disrupted Nighttime Sleep:
    • Experiencing increased daytime sleepiness is one of the primary symptoms of narcolepsy. Individuals tend to fall asleep easily in still positions and comfortable situations, often experiencing a sudden need for sleep throughout the day. Despite the heightened daytime sleepiness, narcolepsy patients may face interruptions in their nighttime sleep.
  2. Cataplexy: Sudden Loss of Muscle Control:
    • Almost all narcolepsy patients experience cataplexy, characterized by a sudden loss of muscle strength. This phenomenon typically begins in the facial and neck muscles, leading to symptoms such as jaw slackening and head dropping.
  3. Hallucinations:
    • Hallucinations can occur before falling asleep, during the transition from sleep to wakefulness, or upon waking up.
  4. Sleep Paralysis:
    • Sleep paralysis is defined as the inability to perform voluntary movements despite being conscious. Narcolepsy patients may experience sleep paralysis during sleep, upon waking up at night, or in the morning.

Effects of Narcolepsy on Patients: Research on individuals with narcolepsy indicates the presence of professional challenges and reduced financial gains. Some narcolepsy patients report difficulties in everyday activities due to muscle weakness, leading to falls, dropping objects, accidents, etc.

Various sleep disorders such as sleep terror, sleepwalking, and narcolepsy can coexist in individuals with narcolepsy.

Narcolepsy patients may experience a decrease in metabolism rate, leading to weight gain.

Diagnosis and Treatment of Narcolepsy: The diagnosis of narcolepsy involves considering various measurements, including the patient’s medical history, blood oxygen levels, sleep-related brain wave activities, eye and leg movements during sleep, daytime sleepiness levels, and hypocretin levels.

Treatment aims to reduce the symptoms of narcolepsy and improve the quality of life. Pharmacological and psychological treatment methods are utilized for this purpose. Additionally, making lifestyle adjustments related to physical activities, sleep routines, and dietary habits can contribute positively to the treatment.


  • Karadağ, M. G. (2008). Narkolepsili hastalarda omega 3 yağ asitlerinin uyku, plazma oreksin A düzeyine etkisi ve hastaların beslenme durumlarının değerlendirilmesi. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation) Hacettepe University Institute of Health Sciences Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Ankara.
  • Yılmaz, K. (2015). Güncel Bilgiler Işığında Narkolepsi. Journal of Turkish Sleep Medicine, 2(1).
  • Yüceer, H. (2019). Narkolepsiye özgü otoantikorların immünopresipitasyon ve kütle spektrofotometre ile tanımlanması ve validasyonu. (Unpublished master’s thesis) Istanbul University Institute of Health Sciences Department of Neuroscience, Istanbul.
  • NHS – Narcolepsy Causes


‘’Bencil İnsan’’ Değil, ‘’Benci İnsan’’ Olabilmek Sağlıklıdır

Being a “Selfish Person” is Not Healthy, Being a “Self-Centered Person” 

Can Be Prioritizing ourselves, being able to say no to things we don’t want, expressing situations we don’t like are often seen as selfishness. If we don’t make it a duty not to hurt anyone, postpone our own desires, and put others above ourselves, we accuse ourselves of selfishness and ingratitude. However, these concepts are not really related to selfishness.

The line that separates selfishness from “being self-centered” is that a person does not dig someone else’s pit, does not violate the rights of others for their own interests, and does not ignore everyone except themselves. Similarly, it is not doing these things to someone else. Selfish people are more like “I enthusiasts” and experience this situation as an addiction. The person is not addicted to a substance, object, or someone else; they are strongly addicted to their own ego. There is a boundary that separates selfishness from self-centeredness. Defending oneself, expressing one’s values, beliefs, feelings from one’s own perspective is not ego addiction; ego addiction is exceeding the dose, a total obsession with the meaning of “Me.” It is the obsession of always being ahead of “Me” in every place, every time, and every condition. Ego addiction is the tension of living with a rigid selfishness, being trapped in the ego, and not being able to get out of the ego patterns. At the same time, it is the inconsistent story of excessive protection of the ego value. Selfish people often use cognitive distortions frequently to make logical explanations to themselves, or rather, to deceive themselves and others.

They are always in a situation of being perfect, right, and the best. They put themselves forward in human relationships. You often hear phrases like “I am right, let it be as I say, I want it this way.” If these needs are not met, significant problems can arise. They can come to a point where they almost disregard others for themselves. There is a great danger in this situation. Empathy disappears completely when the war of the ego is fought; putting oneself in the other’s place, trying to understand their emotions and thoughts completely disappears. Therefore, selfishness can cause difficulties in establishing healthy communication and maintaining social relationships in the long run.

In families, it is important not to feed selfish attitudes, especially in childhood. They need to be more careful about giving wrong advice and guidance to children. Children raised in the mindset of always protecting themselves, wanting to be superior to everyone, always having the mentality of “Me” are young examples of this situation. It is healthy to be able to stay between completely protecting oneself without completely sacrificing one’s own beliefs, thoughts, and behaviors for others; being able to put forward the ego value without completely destroying it. Being able to be self-centered is exactly this, without completely giving up oneself, being able to value the other person, and being able to share love with others while loving oneself first. Without completely erasing our thoughts, we can also listen to the thoughts of others, but if we do not show the respect we have deprived ourselves of, we cannot find it in anyone. Allowing the boundaries we cannot set to be formed by selfish people. Therefore, when we say “Me first,” we should be careful not to say it in a self-centered way. Being self-centered means learning to say no and being able to establish healthy boundaries in our relationships. If we can achieve these without harming others, if we can express what we want and what we need without hesitation, then we are using selfishness in the right way.

Written by:

Psychologist Merve SAVAŞKAN


Ruhumuza Atılan Tokatlar; Psikolojik Şiddet

Slaps to Our Souls: Psychological Violence

Those we call our loved ones or those closest to us can become the individuals we most want to distance ourselves from when it comes to violence. This is because we feel in our bones that there is no healthy love connection within any form of violence. We particularly notice the slaps, punches, and attacks directed at our bodies and tirelessly try to cover them up. We don’t leave any cream or concealer unused so that bruises, wounds, redness, and marks don’t show up. In physical violence, we feel the pain in our bodies directly and see the damage to our bodies clearly. Thus, when we experience physical violence, understanding it is not difficult.

But what about the slaps thrown at our souls, the ignorance of our feelings, the cultivation of the side accustomed to insult, the blame on our identity, the dismissal of ourselves, the degradation of our ideas and behaviors, the humiliation of every step we take, the withholding of love, and the violence towards our self-worth; the countless wounds opened with psychological violence, the most frequently experienced and least recognized type of violence? Even if the slaps thrown at our souls don’t turn into bruises or redness on our bodies, it can take some time to recognize the deep wounds opened within us. Compared to physical violence, it can sometimes be difficult to understand psychological violence. Or, due to the frequent occurrence of this situation, we may normalize it and continue to blame ourselves instead of recognizing psychological violence. According to research, it is also more difficult to heal the wounds of psychological violence compared to physical violence.

In psychological violence, there is a broad network that includes all kinds of criticism, humiliation, blaming, shaming, judging, bullying, and threatening behaviors. This network encompasses many points, from your mother’s angry gaze when you were a child to your father never hugging you, from being labeled as unsuccessful at your workplace to being embarrassed in your relationships, and even being ridiculed for your feelings. Psychological violence is closely related to being deprived. It involves constant deprivation and exclusion of love, approval, acceptance, and respect. It thrives on finding faults, searching for wrongs, needling, criticizing, and suppressing. While the behavior and implications of everyone we encounter in our lives may sometimes not bother us, experiencing these situations from our loved ones constitutes psychological violence. The negative and recurring accusations of our mothers, fathers, teachers, friends, partners, spouses, which include things like unforgettable expressions, words, or actions, are psychological violence. These things may be present in an expression, words, or actions that we cannot forget.

The effects of these slaps thrown at our souls question our self-confidence, worth, competence, the belief that we deserve to be loved, our strength, and our importance. The constant feelings of guilt, the sense of failure, and the inner whispers of unworthiness quietly suggest that we deserve this. When we believe in these, instead of being aware of the psychological violence we have experienced, we start searching for mistakes in ourselves. However, the first thing we need to know about psychological violence is that in any form of violence, no matter what the reason is, wrongdoing does not make it right. Violence is a wrong action, and there is no justification for violence.

No form of violence is deserved or seen as right. Making a mistake is an opportunity not for being insulted but for self-improvement. Disregarding, being ignored, criticized feelings are your most valuable needs. Needs are meant to be fulfilled, not dulled. To cope with psychological violence, we first need to recognize that we are subjected to it. Afterwards, instead of explaining it with phrases like “It happens in every family,” “It can happen in any relationship,” or “They must be in a bad mood,” we need to give up these attitudes and act consciously. This action involves seeking solutions by first listening to our inner voice, not by turning a blind eye or keeping silent.

Remember that you are very valuable, being loved, approved, accepted is your fundamental right, and a happier life is always possible. If you find it difficult to cope with psychological violence, do not hesitate to seek help from professionals. Do not accept any form of violence. Healthy relationships are built with healthy love. When you realize that you are subjected to psychological violence, instead of remaining silent, you can also say “Stop!”

Written by:

Psychologist Merve SAVAŞKAN


Önce Terapötik İlişki

First, Therapeutic Relationship

The bond established between the therapist and the client is different from all other connections we form. This is because therapy is the place where the client is most transparent and open. It is the space where we confront aspects of ourselves and our relationships with others that we may not have been able to solve or even notice. Essential rules are required for this space to be formed, and providing suitable conditions for the person comes first, through establishing the right relationship with them.

In the therapeutic relationship with the therapist, the client’s ability to open up, trust, and express themselves is equivalent to the power of the therapeutic relationship. However, the therapeutic process can only begin after this professional relationship has been established. In a relationship system where one feels misunderstood, lacks a sense of trust, and cannot define their boundaries, it is impossible to take steps towards healing. Without being able to position their therapist within a system that they cannot separate from their friends, spouse, family, or loved ones, one cannot seek solutions or gain awareness. It is crucial for the therapist to maintain an open, compassionate, and accepting attitude while working with intense emotions such as shame, anger, fear, or sorrow/grief. Elements like empathy, respect/care, and acceptance, when combined, carry important relational features of successful therapy. This is because clients bring their emotional wounds to therapy. People knock on the door of therapy not when they are happy and feeling good, but when they have not been able to overcome their problems, when they have no other option. For a person to start the therapy process and benefit from it in this challenging moment, therapy and the therapist must possess different qualities from other people. Therefore, the therapeutic relationship is where the person forms a connection different from their other interpersonal relationships. The bond between the client and the therapist becomes the most crucial element for both the success and benefits of therapy.

The concept of the therapeutic relationship refers, in its simplest form, to the professional relationship established between the client and the therapist. This relationship has specific characteristics and boundaries. The client and therapist relationship is shaped by confidentiality and professional ethical boundaries. There are important elements to consider within this relationship. A trustworthy psychologist-client relationship is influenced by various factors such as creating an accepting atmosphere, being open to sharing information, empathetic listening, and adhering to the principle of confidentiality, as well as knowledge of psychopathology. The content of the therapeutic relationship framework also includes rules related to therapy. The start and end time of therapy must be determined. The client should be informed about when to come and leave, as well as the duration of the therapy. The arrangement of the environment where therapy will take place and establishing eye contact with the client are also important. In the therapy setting, careful organization is necessary, from avoiding elements that may disturb the client to the sensitivity of the placement of items.

The client should feel assured that they are listened to and understood throughout the entire session. For this, the therapist must be able to use various concepts such as active listening, empathy, reflection, summarization, etc. Adhering to the principle of confidentiality with the client is also influential in establishing the therapeutic relationship. The most important factor in the client trusting the therapist is the therapist’s commitment to confidentiality. The client should be informed about situations where the principle of confidentiality may be violated, and unless these exceptional circumstances arise, they should not be deprived of the right to confidentiality. In a strong relationship, the sense of trust prevails. When the therapeutic relationship cannot be established or is disrupted, the therapist should guide the client.

Written by:

Psychologist Merve SAVAŞKAN


Stres Nedir? Nasıl Başa Çıkılır? Tedavi Yöntemi Nelerdir?

What is Stress? Symptoms and Treatment Methods of Stress

Stress, the natural reaction of the body during any moment of danger that requires adaptation or response, can be triggered by both real and perceived threatening situations. The observed situation of danger can be an actual event or a situation perceived as “dangerous” by the mind. The stress response that emerges to protect the individual can disrupt the quality of life and functionality when excessively observed. Many life events in daily life, such as school, home, family, and work environments, can become stressful. Stress can manifest at the physical, emotional, cognitive, and behavioral levels, not only in the face of negative life events but also in situations that require adaptation, such as changes in work or city.

In addition to everyday life events, when traumatic experiences occur or in situations with unforeseeable or uncertain conditions, internal conflicts arise, becoming a source of stress. Stress becomes inevitable when existing coping mechanisms prove insufficient in times of change or situations requiring adaptation.

What is Stress?

The term stress, commonly used to describe mental tension, is an ancient phenomenon dating back to the existence of humanity. The factors causing stress have evolved along with the changes in the process from ancient times to the present. Experiencing stress from the past to the present has been related to how individuals perceive the stress-inducing factor. Therefore, the concept of stress is a variable one from person to person.

To define and understand stress, many researchers have sought answers to the question “What is stress?” Hans Selye, one of the first and important scientists researching stress, defines stress as a general response of the individual to various environmental stimuli. According to Doğan Cüceloğlu, stress is the effort expended beyond the physical and psychological limits due to maladaptive conditions in the physical and social environment. Traumatic events, natural disasters, accidents, pandemics, negative aspects of work life, economic conditions, life events such as marriage-divorce, moving, and daily problems (losing an object, being late somewhere) are among the stimuli that cause stress.

Why Do We Experience Stress?

Although stress is often referred to as a negative condition, it has a vital and protective significance in human life. When a person sees a wild predator approaching, the body activates an “alarm system.” In moments of danger, the nervous system releases cortisol (stress hormone) and adrenaline hormones. These hormones enable the body to enter an “alarm state.” Heart rate increases, muscles tense, breathing intensifies, and the body becomes ready to fight the danger. This automatic response of the nervous system is called the Fight-Flight response and is activated automatically. Despite the fact that almost no one faces a wild predator in daily life, cortisol and adrenaline release often occur, muscles tense, blood flow accelerates, and breathing intensifies.

The body and mind struggle to distinguish how dangerous daily life events are; when it receives signals of internal or external danger, it activates the Fight-Flight response. In moments such as a promotion or approaching deadline for a task, it behaves similarly to when a wild predator is approaching. Therefore, one needs to be alert frequently. In the face of an approaching “danger,” to survive, the individual activates the alarm system physically, emotionally, cognitively, and behaviorally. Being constantly alert and trying to cope with danger becomes exhausting in the long run, reducing functionality. The vital alarm system, when used excessively, becomes dysfunctional and adversely affects psychological well-being.

Stress Symptoms.

The symptoms of stress that occur in the body in response to environmental stimuli causing stress can manifest in four different areas. These symptoms become more pronounced on individuals in conjunction with excessive stress. Excessive stress reveals itself with various symptoms in the physical, mental, emotional, and social domains.

Despite encountering stressful situations in many aspects of daily life, individuals may not be aware that they are experiencing stress in many cases. When experienced frequently, individuals may become accustomed to this situation, consider it normal, or may not associate their problems with stress. However, stress has many physical, emotional, cognitive, and behavioral symptoms.

Physical Symptoms:

Heart palpitations, aches and a feeling of fatigue, muscle tension, accelerated breathing, gastrointestinal problems (constipation, diarrhea, stomach and intestinal disorders), weakness, chest pain, nausea, dizziness, frequent illnesses, weakening of the immune system, and loss of sexual desire are observable.

*Pains (back, head, muscle pain),

*Teeth grinding and jaw clenching,

*Stomach and intestinal problems (diarrhea, constipation, colitis, indigestion),

*Excessive sweating,

*Changes in appetite,

*Loss of energy.

Mental Symptoms:

Forgetfulness, difficulty making decisions, a constant anxious state, focusing on the negative aspects of events, weakening judgment skills, memory problems, and difficulty concentrating can be observed.

*Memory loss,

*Concentration problems,

*Confusion and indecision.

Emotional Symptoms:

Reluctance, inability to enjoy things that were enjoyable before, feeling lonely, depression, feeling unhappy or joyless, pessimism, a sense of overwhelm, restlessness, sensitivity, irritability, anger outbursts, and anxiety disorders can be observed.

*Feeling anxious,

*Anger outbursts,

*Sudden changes in mood,

*Excessive sensitivity.

Social Symptoms:

*Distrust of others,

*Tendency to blame and embarrass the other party,


Behavioral Symptoms:

Sleep disorders (oversleeping, difficulty falling asleep, fragmented sleep), appetite problems (overeating or loss of appetite), anxiety-related behaviors (nail-biting, hair pulling), procrastination, inability to start or sustain a task, isolation from people, introversion, and substance use can be observed.


 What Causes Stress?

While negative situations (job loss, divorce) generally appear among the causes of stress, new beginnings (starting a new job), positive changes in life (getting married) can also be sources of stress. Stress is closely related to individuals’ psychological resilience and their perception of events. The reactions individuals give to internal and external changes create individual stressors, so there is no single answer to the question “What causes stress?”

As life continues, everything is in a state of change, and individuals try to adapt to these environmental, physical, and psychological changes. The body releases stress hormones in moments of danger or when it feels it has lost control over events. Thanks to these hormones, it becomes easier to control or adapt to stressful situations. However, individuals who have difficulty returning to balance after stressful situations may experience mental exhaustion from time to time.


What Are the Causes of Stress?

Many factors in life can be a source of stress. Life events such as work, school, changing homes, starting university, finishing school, promotions, or the loss of a loved one, illness, natural disasters, and traumatic events such as accidents can be stressors. Relational difficulties, intense work conditions, becoming a parent, getting married, divorcing, financial difficulties can also be among life events that cause stress. However, stress may not always originate from external factors.

Having an anxious or pessimistic disposition, feeling excessive guilt, having an irrational thought structure, being unable to tolerate uncertainty, having weak flexibility skills, perfectionism, either-or style of thinking, negative perceptions about self-worth, and excessive negative inner voices (like it won’t happen, you can’t do it) are also factors observed among the internal triggers of stress.

Stress’s Physiological and Psychological Effects

Stress, which plays a significant role in individuals’ physical and mental well-being, has various physiological and psychological effects. Events perceived as threats by the mind lead to mental stimulation, which then transforms into physical arousal. Following this process, bodily responses and the effects of stress on the body become apparent.

Cardiovascular Diseases

During stress, the heart rate and blood flow in the vessels increase to provide more energy to the body. Therefore, one of the most important disorders that can be considered among the effects of stress is cardiovascular diseases.

Chronic Pains

Stress hormones released during stress affect the immune system. Rheumatoid arthritis, an immune system-related disorder, leads to the development of chronic pains in the body. Fibromyalgia syndrome, causing musculoskeletal pains, and increased pain in patients with rheumatoid arthritis during stressful periods have been observed.

Immune System

Stress negatively affects the immune system. Patients with autoimmune disorders experience an increase in their symptoms during stressful periods.

Digestive System

Excessive stress disrupts the balance of the digestive system, leading to stomach and intestinal diseases.

Psychological Stress Reactions

Stress is closely related to psychological health. Depression and anxiety, among the effects of stress, negatively impact an individual’s psychology.

Individuals encounter many negative effects on their physical and mental health due to excessive stress. In addition to these, there are daily life situations affected by stress, such as sleep disorders, eating disorders, disruption of sexual life, increased accidents, decreased work productivity, and deterioration in social relationships.


What Are the Effects of Chronic Stress?

Stress does not always create negative results. A certain amount of stress is a driving force that increases motivation. However, being exposed to stress continuously eventually leads to chronic stress, creating a feeling of fatigue and overwhelm in the individual’s life. Many issues such as upcoming exams, household responsibilities, and workloads with approaching deadlines can cause chronic stress. In such situations that require intense focus, the mind is triggered, and it starts to act as if there is a real threat. A kind of alarm system is activated, and especially physical changes are observed. Heart rate increases, and breathing may intensify. In cases of chronic stress, anxiety disorders, depression, sleep problems, and clinical conditions related to thinking and memory (such as forgetfulness) may occur. During stress, the body starts to act as if there is a threat; therefore, the body is set in motion. In cases of intense and chronic stress, along with the activation of the body’s alarm system (Fight or Flight response), autoimmune diseases, chronic pains, gastrointestinal problems (such as reflux, ulcers), cardiovascular diseases (heart, hypertension), loss of appetite, and skin problems (eczema, hives) may occur.

Coping with Stress

Coping with stress methods are divided into two categories: eliminating the factors causing stress and controlling emotions during stressful moments. Eliminating the damage caused by stress also holds a significant place in stress coping methods.

Problem-Focused Coping

The problem-focused coping method aims to change the stress source in the individual’s environment. With this method, the primary step is to identify the problem causing stress. Then, alternatives are produced for solving the problem, evaluating the benefits and drawbacks of these alternatives, and making a choice among the alternatives based on the evaluations.

Emotion-Focused Coping

In situations where the stress-inducing situation is perceived as uncontrollable, the emotion-focused coping method is used to reduce or manage emotional distress. In emotion-focused stress coping, the individual recognizes and acknowledges the negative emotions that arise with the stressful situation. Along with being able to control the identified emotions, the individual can transform the negative mood into a positive one.

Reducing the Harms Caused by Excessive Stress

To mitigate the damages caused by stress, it is crucial to explore answers to the question “What is good for stress?” Here are some methods to cope with stress and reduce its impacts on the body

Adequate Sleep & Balanced Nutrition

Adequate Sleep and Balanced Nutrition are Crucial Factors for the Regular Functioning of Body Systems.

Breath & Meditation

Breathing and meditation practices significantly reduce the body’s stress levels.

Regular Exercise

Engaging in exercise helps reduce the release of stress hormones in the body.

Ways to Cope with Stress

To reduce the impact of stress, it is crucial to discover what triggers it. Understanding the source facilitates the development of coping methods and marks the first step in choosing a path. Recognizing stress symptoms and enhancing awareness during stressful moments are other essential steps. In situations of intense stress where coping becomes challenging, seeking assistance from a mental health professional is critical. If deemed necessary, medical treatment can be initiated. In psychotherapy, interventions are made to explore the source of stress and strengthen coping mechanisms.

Keeping daily records of stress-related events (incident, trigger, thoughts at that moment, emotions, behavior record) increases awareness. This allows the identification of triggers and understanding the initiators. Breathing and relaxation exercises applied during stress can help reduce and control the body’s stress levels. In psychotherapy practices, individuals are taught breathing and relaxation exercises to learn how to relax physically during stressful moments. Additionally, creating a connection between events-thoughts-emotions-behaviors triggering stress brings about changes in the thought system.

Methods for coping with stress include physical exercise, healthy eating, regular sleep and rest, communication with others, maintaining social connections, focusing on the present rather than the past or future, trying to enjoy the moment, and learning to relax.

How to Seek Professional Help in Coping with Stress

Each individual’s life, past, environment, and perception of life are unique. Therefore, the perspective on events and stress varies from person to person. Coping with stress is a personal journey that can take place through individual effort. For those who find it difficult to cope with stress alone, seeking professional help in stress therapy is important. The goal is to identify individual stressors and teach personalized coping methods. The aim is to increase emotional resilience and ensure emotional management during stressful moments.

For those significantly affected by stress:

  • whose daily life, work, social relationships are impaired,
  • experiencing deterioration in physical health,
  • negatively affected psychologically,
  • struggling to cope with stress alone, it is crucial to seek support from a qualified psychiatrist and/or clinical psychologist.

Is a Stress-Free Life Possible?

Stress is a driving force and motivation source in human life. When it does not exist at all or reaches an excessive level, it disrupts functionality. Using stress as a creative force to support skills and abilities will reduce its negative effects and help focus on tasks and maintain a healthy daily routine.

Eliminating life events such as marriage, divorce, loss of a loved one, unemployment, becoming a parent, loss, grieving process, starting a new relationship, separation, illness, retirement, and others is not possible. Similarly, achieving a completely stress-free life is not possible. In some cases, individuals may make changes in their lives to distance themselves from stress. However, avoiding stress can become a long-term problem-solving method and bring about different issues. Every new environment becomes another source of stress in terms of adaptation and adjustment. Depending on the need, changes in life can be made to reduce stress. However, identifying stressors and developing coping methods are essential for long-term prevention of similar discomforts and are the most meaningful intervention for increasing psychological well-being.

The presence of family and social circles is a significant healing factor in coping with stress. In situations where stress is intense, individuals may prefer to be alone, but spending time with people and socializing is a protective factor. The feeling of control over one’s own life is a crucial variable in decision-making. Reducing negative attributions when interpreting events makes individuals feel better. It is known that individuals with high emotional coping skills and self-awareness cope with stress better or experience less stress.”

If you have any specific questions or if there’s anything else I can help you with, feel free to let me know!



  1. Aysal, N. (2014). “Stres algısı, başa çıkma, kişilik ve sağlık arasındaki ilişkilerin etkileşimsel stres ve başa çıkma modelinde incelenmesi.” (Yayımlanmamış yüksek lisans tezi). Okan Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Psikoloji Ana Bilim Dalı Psikoloji Bilim Dalı, Ankara.
  2. Güçlü, N. (2001). “Stres Yönetimi.” Gazi Üniversitesi Gazi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 21(1).
  3. Türk, K. (2022). “Bilişsel esneklik, stresle başa çıkma tarzları ve algılanan stres arasındaki ilişkilerin incelenmesi.” (Yayımlanmamış yüksek lisans tezi). Çukurova Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Eğitim Bilimleri Ana Bilim Dalı, Adana.
  4. Mental Health Foundation. (https://www.mentalhealth.org.uk/explore-mental-health/a-z-topics/stress)
  5. Everyday Health. (https://www.everydayhealth.com/stress/guide/effects-on-body/)


Anamnez Nedir

What is Anamnesis?

Anamnesis is defined as the information provided by the patient about their illness and surroundings. Used to express the patient’s history, anamnesis is obtained through specific questions aimed at diagnosing the illness, encompassing all essential information related to the patient’s condition (patient identification, complaints, history, personal background, family history, social situation, habits, medications, and bodily functions).

Taking Anamnesis

Taking anamnesis involves obtaining detailed information about the patient’s illness that led to the hospital visit. Generally, it is preferred to collect information directly from the patient. However, in cases where obtaining information directly from the patient is challenging, such as when the patient has consciousness disorders, support may be sought from family members following the patient’s illness process.

Anamnesis in Psychiatry In psychiatry,

A carefully taken history is known to be one of the most crucial tools leading the therapist to diagnosis and proper treatment. Thus, taking anamnesis in psychiatry is considered one of the most critical stages of therapy.

When taking anamnesis in psychiatry, questions are directed towards obtaining information about the patient’s identity, complaints, the history of the illness, the patient’s personal and family history, social situation, habits, medications, and bodily functions.

The three main objectives of taking anamnesis in psychiatry are:

  1. Obtaining detailed information about the patient’s illness,
  2. Making a diagnosis and creating an appropriate treatment plan,
  3. Creating a permanent record of the information obtained about the patient.

One of the Most Important Tools Leading to Proper Treatment Is Anamnesis.

The initial meeting with the patient has a significant impact on establishing a connection. Therefore, the therapist allows the patient to express themselves comfortably during anamnesis. Establishing trust during this phase is crucial for obtaining accurate and complete information. The therapist is expected to approach the patient with respect, gentleness, interest, acceptance, and a friendly attitude. The therapist, through simple questions and guidance, collaborates with the patient and provides support.

During anamnesis, close attention is paid to the body language used by the patient when narrating information about their illness or problem. Observations include the patient’s general condition, consciousness level, intelligence level, their connection with the illness, and their responses to questions. Thus, every element that can provide information about the illness is taken into account during anamnesis

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