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Neurodevelopmental Disorders

Neurodevelopmental disorders encompass a group of differences and disorders that affect the development of the nervous system, leading to distinct functioning of the brain. Children with neurodevelopmental disorders may encounter challenges in language and speech, motor skills, memory, learning, impulse control, and social skills.

The effects of neurodevelopmental disorders tend to persist throughout a person’s life. While the symptoms may often change or develop as the child grows, some difficulties remain permanent. Diagnosis and treatment of these disorders can be challenging, especially as there are significant similarities in symptoms during the early stages. Treatment typically involves a combination of psychotherapy, educational support, medication, and home and school-based interventions.

Examples of neurodevelopmental disorders in children include attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism, learning disabilities, intellectual disabilities, speech and language disorders, tic disorders, neurogenetic syndromes like Down syndrome, cerebral palsy, and visual and hearing impairments.

In the United States, a survey-based research study indicated that approximately 15% of children between the ages of 3 and 17 are affected by neurodevelopmental disorders. Therefore, it can be considered quite common. Among these, ADHD and learning difficulties are the most prevalent.

Neurodevelopmental disorders often coexist, necessitating a detailed evaluation for each specific disorder. For instance, about 4% of American children have both ADHD and learning difficulties.

Most neurodevelopmental disorders have complex and multiple causes, rather than a single clear reason. These disorders arise from a combination of genetic, biological, psychosocial, and environmental risk factors.


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